Audio Interviewing Tips
Gathering audio that is clean, clear, and crisp is no easy task. This post outlines some hints for you to consider before you conduct audio interviews. It is developed from the hints listed on MediaStorm’s audio training page.
First, let’s revisit some of the basic audio terminology we learned from Mike Brown’s Audio Lecture.
Sound is measured by 3 units: Amplitude, Frequency, and Time
Amplitude: Wave Height: (loudness/volume)
Measured in decibels
Teacher’s voice: 60-70 decibels
Leaves Rustling: 10 decibels
Really loud rock concert: 110 decibels
Jet engine: 130 decibels (can cause ear damage)
Frequency: Length of waves (distance between waves)
Measured in Hertz
High and low.
Long waves have low pitch
Short waves have high pitch
Humans can hear up to 20k hertz
Time: (measured in seconds)
Know Your Equipment: Be comfortable operating your audio recorder. You should know where the buttons are without looking at it. You should know what all of the buttons do. If you’re uncomfortable with the audio recorder, your subject will be as well.
- So, practice with your audio recorder, even if it’s just your phone, BEFORE your interview.
- Also, be sure that you can confidently get the audio file from your phone to a computer and opened in Audacity. Practice now.
Location: Find a quiet location with little background noise. Find a spot with soft surfaces that absorb sound. A couch or fabric chair is better than a wooden chair. Cover a table with a blanket. A car with closed windows is a great location. Avoid hallways and large rooms that echo.
No Ambient Noise During Interview: While you do want to use ambient noise in your audio story, you don’t want the ambient noise to interfere with the person speaking to you. Avoid consistent background noise by picking a small quiet room with carpet and soft chairs. If using the TASCAM, try using the foam covering to see if it helps quiet ambient noise. You want to collect ambient noise separately and not fight it during the interview.
If Ambient Noise is Unavoidable: Press the record button before you begin the formal interview. Allow the recorder to collect the ambient noise without anyone’s voices interrupting the ambient noise. This gives you clean ambient noise to insert into any pauses during the editing process.
Get Close: Put the microphone about 2 inches away from the person’s mouth if you’re recording at a moderate “rec level” (about 5-7 on the TASCAM). You can put the microphone farther away if you’re recording at a higher “rec level” (about 9-10).
- Remember though — when editing, it’s easier to bump up the volume than bump down the volume. Thus, err on the side of caution and do not record at a level that is TOO LOUD.
Use Headphones: Put your headphones into the headphone jack on your digital audio recorder. Hit the “record” button. Now ask the person to talk. Ensure that you can hear the person clearly. If you can’t hear them clearly, put the microphone closer to their mouth and/or increase the “rec level” to a higher sensitivity. Keep the headphones on your ears during the whole interview. You’ll know exactly how the person sounds the whole time.
Speak Up: Ask the person to speak up and speak louder if you can’t hear them properly and clearly when you have your headphones on.
Don’t Fidget: Do not fidget and play with the audio recorder while gathering sound. The audio recorder picks up the noise when you rub your hands on it. Avoid this by not fidgeting.
Focus: There’s many things to think about while conducting an audio interview. Can you hear them clearly? What are they saying? What’s my next question? Where is the interview going? How can I take the interview in a different direction or somewhere I hadn’t planned if they say something interesting?
If you go over or under 5 minutes, or if you aren’t happy with the 5-minute interview, then do it again! There is no penalty for doing the 5-minute interview multiple times.
But Also Engage: Listen to the person. Make eye contact (don’t look at their mouth). Seem genuinely interested in their story. After they’re done speaking, stay in silence for a moment. They may add more detail to their thoughts.
Uh huh: Don’t do it. Avoid saying those filler words during an interview. You don’t want YOUR voice recorded when the person is talking. Instead, nod, smile, use eye contact, and lean forward to encourage the person.
Avoid Comment. Resist the urge provide in-depth responses or comments to your interviewee during and after everything he/she says–that means more editing for yourself or not being able to use the audio at all.
Pause. During the audio interview, leave a brief pause after the interviewee finishes answering a question and before you begin your next question. Giving more pause will leave you more room for editing.
Ask Explanation-Needed Questions: Don’t just ask, “How old were you when you first realized you wanted to be a journalist?” You’ll get the answer, “I few years ago.” Ask questions that need more explanation, “What inspired you to become a journalist and when did you make this decision in your life?”
I can’t emphasize this enough: Request that the interviewee always answers in complete sentences that clearly address the question, not short phrases that may need a narrator’s explanation. Ideally, the interviewee should begin their answer by repeating the question.
If your interviewee answers your question with: “yeah, it was great,” then I suggest you ask the question again and ask them to answer in complete sentences like: “yeah, the experience of studying abroad was great.”
Ask Again: Don’t be afraid to ask “Why?;” “Please explain that more in-depth.” “Please say that again, I didn’t quite understand the first time.”
Ask Sensory Questions (if relevant): “Tell me about…”; “What did it sound like when…”; “How did it feel when…”; “What did it smell like…”; “What did it look like when…”; “Describe the scene for me.”
Last Question (if you need to fill time to reach 5 minutes): Ask, “Is there anything else I should have asked? Is there anything else you want me to know?”
Practice Audio Recording with Your Device
There is no better way to learn audio reporting than by trying it out for yourself!
Let’s practice audio recording and getting the audio files off our devices and onto the computer. If you don’t have an audio file on your phone already, then go ahead and record yourself counting to 10. Then, move the file to your computer. Can you open it in Audacity? Or, do you need to convert the file? Google your questions about your specific phone or device.
The biggest complaint that students have about the audio unit is having trouble getting the audio off their device and onto the computer in a workable file format. So, it’s best if you figure this out BEFORE you use your phone for your audio interview.